Publicaciones académicas | Yo quiero yo puedo

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La evaluación continua, la investigación aplicada y la publicación de resultados nos permiten ser líderes en las áreas temáticas que abordamos.

El cuidado de la salud como semilla para el desarrollo: experiencia de un programa basado en habilidades para la vida y reducción de barreras psicosociales

García Georgina, Givaudan Martha, Ramírez Maricarmen, Valdez Edna, & Pick Susan
(2017). "El cuidado de la salud como semilla para el desarrollo: experiencia de un programa basado en habilidades para la vida y reducción de barreras psicosociales". Acta de Investigación Psicológica, 7, pp. 2647-2657.
Alrededor del 75% de los habitantes de Metlatónoc, Guerrero, viven en pobreza extrema (ENSANUT, 2012), lo que aumenta sus probabilidades de padecer problemas de salud, fundamentalmente en materias de higiene y nutrición. Para proporcionar a esta población herramientas que mejoren el control sobre la toma de decisiones que afectan su salud y prevenir enfermedades, se implementó un programa comunitario basado en habilidades para la vida y en el Marco para Facilitar el Empoderamiento Intrínseco (Pick y Sirkin, 2010). Se impartió un taller para formar a 35 promotores, quienes lo replicaron con la población meta siguiendo una metodología participativa y vivencial, llegando a 4,728 personas —casi todas mujeres—. Para evaluar el efecto del programa se aplicó un cuestionario de autorreporte; con los promotores se utilizó un diseño longitudinal: pre, post y seguimiento, y con la población meta un diseño pre-post con grupo control. Se encontraron efectos favorables y significativos en gran parte de las variables evaluadas (conocimientos, actitudes y conductas meta, habilidades para la vida, barreras psicosociales, agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco), en ambos tipos de participantes. Los hallazgos se discuten a la luz de su contribución para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de las personas y potenciar su desarrollo.

Modelo para la promoción de la salud en comunidades rurales a través del desarrollo de agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco

Pick Susan, García Rodríguez Georgina & Leenen Iwin
(2011). "Modelo para la promoción de la salud en comunidades rurales a través del desarrollo de agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco". Revista Universitas Psychologica, 10(2), 327-340.
Con el propósito de modificar conductas alimentarias y sanitarias en los habitantes de comunidades marginadas, a través del desarrollo de conocimientos y habilidades psicosociales encaminadas a promover agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco, se desarrolló e instrumentó en México un modelo piloto basado en el programa "Yo quiero yo puedo...mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos". La evaluación de dicho programa mostró un efecto sobre conocimientos, comunicación asertiva, agencia personal y equidad de género en el personal de los almacenes que surten las tiendas rurales, así como en conocimientos, comunicación asertiva, toma de decisiones y agencia personal en la población meta. Las habilidades psicosociales, los conocimientos y la agencia personal ofrecen oportunidades para superar la pobreza.

Evaluación del impacto de un programa de prevención de violencia en adolescentes

Pick Susan, Romero Angélica, de la Parra Coria Ana & Givaudan Martha
(2010). "Evaluación del impacto de un programa de prevención de violencia en adolescentes". Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 44(2), pp. 203-212.
El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el impacto de "Yo quiero, yo puedo...prevenir la violencia" un programa diseñado para transmitir conocimientos sobre violencia y desarrollar habilidades psicosociales en adolescentes. 178 docentes en Ciudad Juárez/MX, Mérida/MX y la Ciudad de México/MX, y 1,052 estudiantes en Mérida y en la Ciudad de México del último grado de primaria y de secundaria, fueron evaluados antes y después de la implementación del programa. 718 estudiantes participaron como grupo control. Después del programa, los participantes incrementaron significativamente sus conocimientos sobre violencia, los derechos de los niños y adolescentes, equidad de género y mejoraron de manera significativa su desempeño en asertividad, toma de decisiones y expresión de emociones, en comparación con el grupo control.

Yo quiero, yo puedo…prevenir la violencia: Programa breve de sensibilización sobre violencia en el noviazgo.

Pick Susan, Leenen Iwin, Givaudan Martha & Prado Andrea
(2010). "Yo quiero, yo puedo…prevenir la violencia”: Programa breve de sensibilización sobre violencia en el noviazgo. Revista Salud Mental, 33(2), pp. 153-160.
La violencia en el noviazgo es un tema reciente en la investigación científica, cuya incidencia en personas jóvenes va de 22 a 33%. Aún cuando hay evidencias de mujeres que agreden a sus parejas masculinas y también existe violencia entre parejas del mismo sexo, la violencia de pareja sigue siendo predominantemente de control del hombre hacia la mujer. La incidencia de este tipo de violencia y sus consecuencias físicas, emocionales y sociales señalan la necesidad de crear programas de prevención en poblaciones jóvenes. Sin embargo, también debe tomarse en cuenta que en muchas escuelas no existe aún la disposición o los recursos para ofrecer talleres de prevención de larga duración enfocados a esta problemática. Por ello, resulta imperioso contar con estrategias breves que lleven a largo plazo a cambios de conductas en los jóvenes. El primer paso para lograr la prevención es la sensibilización en torno a esta problemática, lo cual permite empezar un proceso de cambio de normas sociales sobre el tema. El programa "Yo quiero, yo puedo...prevenir la violencia: Programa breve de sensibilización sobre violencia en el noviazgo" se desarrolló, instrumentó y evaluó con el objetivo de sensibilizar e incrementar la información que tienen las y los jóvenes sobre los antecedentes culturales y de género relacionados con la violencia en el noviazgo y sus consecuencias a nivel físico, emocional y social.

Effectiveness of a Mexican Health Education Program in a Poverty-Stricken Rural Area of Guatemala

Leenen Iwin, Givaudan Martha, Pick Susan, Venguer Tere, Vera Judith & Poortinga H. YPE
(2008). "Effectiveness of a mexican health education program in a poverty-stricken rural area of Guatemala". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
In this article, the authors discuss the transfer to Guatemala of an integral health education program, originally developed for indigenous women in southern Mexico. The program was implemented with some 400 indigenous women in rural Guatemala living under dire poverty, and was carried out through a closely supervised cascade process in which specially trained local women conducted workshops to their fellow countrywomen. The program aimed at imparting knowledge as well as enabling changes in behavior with respect to everyday life issues, including nutrition, hygiene, sanitation, and sexual and reproductive health. Evaluation of the impact through questionnaires and direct observations showed significant increases in knowledge and actual behaviors.

Enhancement of underused cervical cancer prevention services in rural Oaxaca, Mexico

Givaudan Martha, Leenen Iwin, Pick Susan, Angulo Andrea & Poorting H. Ype
(2008). "Enhancement of underused cervical cancer prevention services in rural Oaxaca, Mexico". Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 23(2), pp. 135-143.
Cervical cancer is a global public health issue. According to a recent report by the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention an estimated 274000 women fall vicitim to cervical cancer each year, 80% of whom live in low-income countries. The problem has been associated with women´s inadequate knowledge of the disease and its prevention and the low expertise of health professionals as well as their lack of cultural sensitivity. In industrialized countries, the incidence of and death rate from cervical cancer have significantly decreased over the past 50 years as a result of widespread implementation and use of Papanicolaou or Pap smear testing. The Pap smear test is an effective screeing tool for cervical neoplaisa, a precursor of cervical cancer, which is mostly caused by human papilloma virus. Treatment of cervical cancer precursos is usually highly succesful. In this article, we discuss a health education program, named Porque me quiero, me cuido (Because I like myself, I take care of myself), that was implemented in rural and indigenous populations in Valles Centrales in Oaxaca, one of Mexico's poorest and most rural states. The Valles Centrales region occupies a third of the state's territory. In Oaxaca, the mortality rate due to cervical cancer is 12.4 per 100000women. Hence, the goal of the program was to promote the use of screening services. The program is geared toward increasing knowledge and skills, enabling women to take preventive measures against cervical cancer, and promoting Pap smear tests. A first version of the program was implemented with support from the local health authorities in the state of Oaxaca.

Longitudinal study of a School based HIV/AIDS early prevention program for Mexican Adolescents

Givaudan Martha, Leenen Iwin, Van De Vjiver J.R. Fons, Poortinga H. Ype & Pick Susan
(2007). “Longitudinal study of a school-based program for HIV/AIDS prevention for mexican adolescents”. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 13(1), pp. 98-110.
A quasi-experimental study is reported with four measurement occasions to evaluate longer-term effects of a life-skills and HIV/AIDS school-based prevention program. Trained teachers administered the program promoting precursors of safer sex behavior to 2064 Mexican high-school students at an age before most were sexually active. The variables included in the study (knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, attitudes towards use of condoms, subjective norms, intentions to use condoms and life skills as decision-making skills, partner communication and individual responsibility) have been reported as precursors of protective sexual behavior. The results demonstrate the stability of training effects and a positive impact on these precursors over 1 year of follow-up.

Health education and agency: A comprehensive program for young women in the Mixteca region of Mexico

Venguer Tere, Pick Susan & Fishbein Martin
(2007). "Health education and agency: A comprehensive program for young women in the Mixteca region of Mexico". Psychology, Health & Medicine, 12(4), pp. 389-406.
The "Si yo estoy bien, mi familia también" (‘‘If I am OK then so is my family’’) is a health and agency education program that was provided over a period of 3 years to 39,000 rural women in Oaxaca, Mexico. The purpose of the article is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of the program. The theoretical rationale and strategy of this intervention are described, as well as the construction of the program and the implementation. Moreover, an evaluation of the various stages of the program is provided, to enable an assessment of its efficacy, and the scope for dissemination and scaling up.

Communication as a Protective Factor: Evaluation of a Life Skills HIV/AIDS Prevention Program For Mexican Elementary-School Students

Pick Susan, Givaudan Martha, Sirkin Jenna & Ortega Isaac
(2007). “Communication as a protective factor: evaluation of a life-skills HIV/AIDS prevention program for Mexican elementary school students”. AIDS Education & Prevention, 19(5), pp. 408-421.
Literature suggests that communication is a protective factor against high–risk sexual behavior. This study assessed the impact of a fourth–grade communication– centered life skills program on attitudes, norms, self–efficacy, behaviors, and intentions toward communication about difficult subjects. Participants included 1,581 low–income Mexican elementary-school children, divided into experimental and control groups. Teachers were trained to replicate the program as part of the school curriculum over 15 to 20weeks. Students completed self–report questionnaires before and after the program. Multilevel analyses demonstrated the program’s statistically significant positive impact on communication about attitudes, self–efficacy, intentions, and behavior; perception of sociocultural norms regarding communication transformed as a result of the program. Gender significantly predicted differences in communication: with respect to attitudes, self–efficacy, and intentions. The results show that early intervention programs targeting communication about difficult subjects can prevent risky sexual behavior and its consequences (e.g., HIV/AIDS) and influence perception of norms and gender roles.

Effects of a School-Based Life Skills and HIV-Prevention Program for Adolescents in Mexican High Schools

Givaudan Martha, Van de Vjiver J.R. Fons, Poortinga H. Ype, Leenen Iwin & Pick Susan
(2007). “Effects of a school-based life skills and HIV prevention program”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(6), pp. 1141-1162.
Aschool-based life skills and sexuality educationHIV/AIDS program for adolescents was evaluated in Toluca, Mexico, through a quasi-experimental pre–post design with 1,566 cases, divided over a control group and an experimental group. Based on a previously tested path model, 3 levels of variables were included as a guide for the contents of the program: personal variables (self-knowledge, self-efficacy regarding condom use, and decision making), intervening variables (subjective norms about, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and attitudes toward condoms), and outcome variables (communication on sexuality and intentions to use condoms). Evaluation was conducted following these categories. Significant increases in all of these variables recognized as precursors of safer sex were found in the experimental group.

Evaluación del programa escolarizado para adolescentes: un equipo contra el VIH/SIDA

Givaudan Martha & Pick Susan
(2005). "Evaluación del programa escolarizado para adolescentes: un equipo contra el VIH/SIDA". Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 39(3), pp. 339-346.
Se reporta el desarrollo, instrumentación y evaluación longitudinal de un programa de prevención temprana de VIH/SIDA para adolescentes. El estudio se llevó a cabo en Toluca, México. La intervención consta de un componente de capacitación para docentes quienes replican posteriormente el programa con sus alumnos y alumnas en un ambiente escolarizado. La muestra estuvo constituida por 2,064 adolescentes mujeres y hombres en su mayoría sin experiencia sexual. Se analizaron los resultados del efecto de las variables percursoras de conducta sexual que incluyeron cuatro mediciones comparadas con un grupo control. Después de un año de seguimiento, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todas las variables analizadas al comparar el grupo experimental y el grupo control. No hubo incremento en la incidencia de relaciones sexuales.

A Cervical Cancer Prevention Programme in Rural Mexico: Addressing Women and their Context

Givaudan Martha, Pick Susan, Poortinga H. YPE, Fuertes Carmen & Gold Lauren
(2005). "A cervical cancer prevention program in rural mexico: addressing women and their context". Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15, pp. 338 -352.
This article reports on the development and administration of a programme in seven rural villages in the Mexican state of Oaxaca to address high rates of cervical cancer. The rationale and strategy are described on which the programme is based. The development and administration of the programme (to 1513 women) is presented, aimed at enabling women to take better care of themselves. Various additional activities that were added in the course of the programme in order to facilitate contextual factors are also described, including community campaigning, programmes with men and the training of health personnel. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of both process and impact indices, showing high rates of attendance at programme sessions by enrolled women, an increase in knowledge and a substantial increase in the number of preventive diagnostic tests. The final section reflects on both the achievements, and the scope and the limitations of the programme.

Sexual Pleasure as a Key Component of Integral Sexual Health

Pick Susan, Givaudan Martha & Kline Kathryn Flom
(2005). “Sexual pleasure as a key component of sexual health”. Feminism & Psychology, 15(1), pp. 44-49
Latin American politicians, educators, and policy makers are finally recognizing the need of sexuality education. Within the past 10 years, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico have passed laws making sexuality education mandatory. These laws are a response to social and public health crises stemming from sexual behaviour: large numbers of teenage pregnancies, the spread of HIV and AIDS., and high incidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. In Mexico, where patriarchal social norms have traditionally blocked the dissemination of information about sex, negotiation with opposition groups and key authorities at different levels in the education structure has been important for the implementation of sexuality education nationwide.

Desarrollo y validación del instrumento: "ansiedad en las relaciones interpersonales de adolescentes (ARIA)"

Barrios Salcedo María del Carmen & Pick Susan
(2005). "Desarrollo y validación del instrumento: ansiedad en las relaciones interpersonales de adolescentes (ARIA)". Revista Intercontinental de Psicología y Educación, 7(1), pp. 11-20.
Se llevó a cabo un estudio exploratorio para conocer las causas de ansiedad en adolescentes al afrontar problemas en sus relaciones interpersonales familiares, escolares y sociales. Para ello se recurrió a grupos focales de adolescentes escolarizados de 15 a 18 años. Con base en los resultados de dicho estudio, se diseñó y validó un instrumento para identificar los niveles de ansiedad ante las relaciones interpersonales, el cual quedó conformado por veinte factores. Entre ellos destacan por tener los niveles más altos de ansiedad las relaciones entre padres e hijos y con la pareja y la aceptación de amigos y compañeros. Los resultados se analizaron conforme a género y edad: en el primer caso, en quince de los veinte factores hubo diferencias significativas a nivel estadístico, al contrario que en el segundo, donde la edad no marcó distinción alguna.

Identifying Precursors of Safer-Sex Practices in Mexican Adolescents With and Without Sexual Experience:

Givaudan Martha, Van de Vijver Fons J.R. & Poortinga H. Ype
(2005). Identifying Precursors of Safer-Sex Practices in Mexican Adolescents With and Without Sexual Experience: An exploratory model. Journal of applied social psychology, 35(5), 1089-1109.
Theoretical variables were examined for their empirical relevance as precursors of safer-sex behavior in 2,011 Mexican adolescents, most of whom were not sexually experienced. Using structural equation modeling, a good fit was found for a path model with a) partner communication and intention to use condoms as outcome variables; b) self-esteem, self-efficacy, and decision-making as antecedent variables; and c) perceived norms about sexual practices, attitudes toward condom use, and knowledge of HIV as mediating variables. A good fit also was found for slightly elaborated model involving condm use as outcome variable that was fitted in a subsample with 319 adolescents who reported sexual experience. Gender differences are discussed, as well as implications for interventions programs promoting safer-sex behaviors.

A Preventive Program for Substance Abuse in Mexico: Best Practices

Givaudan Martha & Pick Susan
(2004). "A preventive program for substance abuse in Mexico: Best Practice". Prevention Perspective. www.mentorfoundation.org
Global drug abuse has propelled a variety of institutions, ranging from educational and health, government and non-governmental organizations, to design and implement preventive strategies and promote healthy behavior. Successful preventive programs have identified psychosocial skills as fundamental to preventing drug and substance abuse. As part of this collective goal to prevent drug abuse, the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo” [I want to, I can], designed in Mexico with the support of Mentor Foundation, provides self-knowledge, communication, negotiation and problem solving skills, to enable children, teachers and parents to make decisions rejecting drug use. Integral interventions that promote the building of a network of support from school, home and community and integrate life-skills training, specific information about substance abuse prevention and friendly materials can be considered as best practice.

Integrating Intervention Theory and Strategy in Culture-Sensitive Health Promotion Programs

Pick Susan, Poortinga H. Ype & Givaudan Martha
(2003). "Integrating intervention theory and strategy in culture-sensitive health promotion programs". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(4), pp. 422-429.
One of the tasks of psychology is to promote positive changes in individual health behavior. Interventions to bring about these changes should be directed at skills, knowledge, and beliefs pertinent to specific situations. Maintenance of change is facilitated by a conductive context. A conceptual framework is presented that reflects these concerns. A systematic strategy is also outlined that includes needs analysis, development and piloting of programs, as well as advocacy and dissemination for large scale implementation. A program aimed at enhancing the role of pharmacy sales staff in HIV/AIDS prevention in Mexico is presented to illustrate how the framework and strategy are used.

Sexuality and Life Skills Education, A Multistrategy Intervention in Mexico

Pick Susan, Givaudan Martha & Poortinga H. Ype
(2003). "Sexuality and life skills education: multi strategy interventions in Mexico". American Psychologist, 58 (3), pp. 230-234.
This contribution presents a set of intervention programs in the area of reproductive health, sexuality, and life-skills education that are now widely used in Mexico and with Latin American populations elsewhere. First, the authors briefly indicate how a research-informed approach has been central to the development and implementation of these interventions. Thereafter they describe how the programs were initially designed, taking into consideration the Mexican cultural context and its implications for Mexican adolescents. They also mention subsequent evaluation-based extensions of the programs to reach other target populations, to broaden the range of issues addressed, to promote their dissemination, and to advocate society-wide sexuality and life-skills education.

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